Tipperary, a hilly inland county, lies for the most part in the basin of the Suir River. The topography is generally level but is diversified by several mountain ridges or groups. These mountains are
the Galtee Mountains, rising to 920 m (3018 ft) at Galtymore Mountain; Knockmealdown and Slievenaman on the south; and Keeper Hill on the west.
The soil of the plain is productive, especially the district called the Golden Vale, in which stands the county town of Tipperary.The principal occupation in the county is agriculture, especially dairy farming. Dairying is the main economic
activity, but the cultivation of oats and potatoes, cattle raising and food processing are also found here.
Anthracite coal is mined as well as copper, lead, and zinc in smaller quantities.
The Rock of Cashel, once a seat of the kings of Munster, is the most notable landmark.
Tipperary was dominated by the Butler family from 1185 to 1715. Today it is divided administratively into North Riding and South Riding.